Malcolm Rifkind

Essay writing

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Approach To Writing

You’ve seen a newspaper article the editorial page apart from the editorial do you find the Hindu article in the open page right you will find that it’s an essay on a topic but you’ll find there are two three importance of biddings it should be there that should be the approach to writing the same not some each thing capitalism what are the benefits of capitalism you know it leads to creation of wealth it will trickle down effect it does create invention so each one you don’t have to be submitting but benefits of capitalism will be abroad submitting and under that there will be four paragraphs one paragraph will deal with creation of wealth one paragraph will deal with how capitalism helps in invention one paragraph will deal with how it leads to market economy and value creation one paragraph will deal with how it will lead to trickle-down theory by this thing but the next suffering will be overall suffering will be challenges or capitalism however leads to inequality or capitalism and inequality. Read more about approaches to essay writing on Edusson.

And in that you will not say that my god between the rich and the poor there is areas geographical areas which are affected that some areas are more brown and some areas are not so grown right you will not say that it results in regressive taxation or whatever it is these are the various angles you not give subheadings for each of those handles but introduction benefits of capitalism capitalism and inequality and then conclusion you don’t have to give interaction as I saw bidding introduction will be the most two paragraphs then main subheading which will change benefits of capitalism and which you want to bring and inequality will be a sabbatical may not result in trickle-down theory may result in inequality I have shown by no empirical evidence across the world results in geography cuz you know differentiation some of the geographies are well developed while some of the geographies are not so well develop it leads to exploitation like how it happens within the societies or between continents here by so each of those topics which you want to bring under the ills of capitalism will not be a separate sided they will be separate paragraphs but you can give and oh sorry so I am NOT give more than two or three subheadings right depending on aspects from which you want depending on the topic.

So there are three angles which you want to three distinct angles three separate subheadings would not more than that and then no this uh biddings ideally you can write we don’t even have to underline it right this uh bidding in bold letters so it is clear that it is a submitting so you know only important words you may want to underline but again don’t make it a control you know it controlled you all of you understand right in computer and you do can told you everything gets underlined so people will get irritated examiner will get irritated if you keep your underline some hundred words in a page where you written 300 words don’t worry you PLC don’t worry you and you don’t know the examiner will definitely read your answer sheet well right and if you terminal you’ll get good lucks so you don’t have to worry oh what if this word is missed out by the examiner don’t bother.

Reading After Writшng

If you are not sure where the pub date is after the title page flip the page over that’s the copyright page and whatever the where it says symbol C and then the date that’s a copyright date that’s the date you wanted to use for your publication date so like simple C 2010 that’s the date mm no URLs where students fall down awhile and using URLs is that they’ll just give the URL WWE website calm period that’s it so when John and I go to your bit pages and just see these URLs we don’t know what these are so make your URLs complete in your bibliography treat the URL like a standard bibliographic reference put the name of the author the name of the article the name of the website and the date if there is a date on the website or whatever date you hold the URL okay so that’s the name of the author and maybe the article and they’ve got a website and the date if and if it’s not the date of the website itself.

And whatever date you pulled it that will really help us to know what you’re referring to spell check and grammar check it is essential that you run your papers through spell check and grammar check when they’re completed I can’t tell you how many people tell me people fall down by not doing that because you’ve got this great paper you’ve got on your research that this you know really strong paper but then it’s filled with romantical errors spelling errors that could have been fixed just by running it through spell check and grammar check please do that it makes a huge difference now I’m going to get into the reviewing and editing and proofreading process in a minute but I do just want to say one thing here if you have time to step away from your paper for a while before you submit it that is really good.

You want to read your paper again after your initial writing that’s where you can look for things like declare the sentence introductory sentence spelling you know spelling grammar errors that kind of thing you will be amazed at what jumps out at you once you read your paper over again a date is usually recommended give it a day then go back to it I know that isn’t always possible you’re finishing your exams or your cure papers like at the last minute but at least give it a couple of hours just step away from it and then go back to it you will be like an editor reading your own work and you will be amazed at what jumps out at you trust me am i right on that job oh yeah also if you have somebody else to read your paper a friend or relative even before you submit it to an English major or somebody at the ready clinic that would be really helpful because that person that doesn’t know what you’re talking about if something he says is unclear that person can say I don’t understand this what did you mean then you can clarify it that makes a real difference.

Writing an Essay for International Exams

Today we are going to look again at one of your comments, this time about writing. Oumaima (I hope I said that right) Oumaima says: You’re amazing sir!  Please can you help me by telling me what are the steps to follow for writing an essay or short paragraph.

And what is the best way to improve my English more and more. Well thank you very much for your very kind words. When it comes to writing essays for international exams, there are two important things that you need to remember. Read the question and plan your answer. In my experience for international exams like CAE, CPE, IELTS and TOEFL, there’s normally 3 or 4 points that are mentioned in the questions that you must refer to in your answer. These carry a lot of weight in the grading because they show that you have understood the task. And it’s always important to plan you writing,

That’s true in any language. Make sure that each paragraph has a theme and that you don’t jump around. Give your work an overall structure with a beginning and middle and an end. Well I hope that is helpful for the writing. For the second part of your question, the best way to improve more and more Is to keep practicing and don’t be afraid to make mistakes. We learn from our mistakes so the more you make the more you learn. Thanks for the question Oumaima, and everyone; What kind of writing do you get asked to do? How do you find it? Let me know in the comments below.

Academic Writing Tips : How to Write a Persuasive Essay

Today we’re going to talk about how to write a persuasive essay. All good essays in my opinion are persuasive. All strong essays will have a very passionate opinion about what they are being written about. So, essentially all essays should be persuasive in some way. But to actually be a persuasive essay that is in quotes, you actually have to be very up front about your position on the particular topic you’re writing about. So what you should do is therefore take everything, all the reasons to agree with your position and write them all down. And then take all the reasons to disagree with your position and write them down as well. And systematically go through and figure out why your position is better than the other position. In a persuasive essay, you actually want to be honest, I hope, about what you’re writing about and about what you’re trying to persuade the reader to believe. So you should actually really check yourself and make sure that you don’t mention anything that you might have questions about in your mind as you’re writing this essay. So, go ahead and pick out the best arguments that you could present. But also give integrity to the opposing side. Let people know that yes, you understand how people could think in a different way but you yourself know that’s the wrong way. So you want to persuade the reader to essentially come over to your side. And like I said before, I think all good strong essays are persuasive in some way. If I get to the end of an essay and I haven’t been persuaded of at least something, I pretty much wasted my time. So think about that as you write any kind of paper.

Narrative Writing Plan

Directions: Answer the questions below from “Proust’s Questionnaire” to help you begin thinking about a potential topic to write your narrative about.
Proust’s Questionnaire:
1. What is your idea of perfect happiness?
2. What is your greatest fear?
3. What is the trait you most deplore in yourself?
4. What is the trait you most deplore in others?
5. Which living person do you most admire?
6. What is your current state of mind?
7. What do you most dislike about your appearance?
8. Which living person do you most despise?
9. When and where were you happiest?
10. If you could change one thing about yourself, what would it be?
11. What do you consider your greatest achievement?
12. Where would you most like to live?
13. What is your most treasured possession?
14. What is your favorite occupation?
15. What is your greatest regret?
16. What is your motto?

Narrative Writing Brainstorming

Directions: Read the narrative writing prompt and in each section write down as much information as you can about your topic. Remember you are brainstorming… so the more details the better!
Prompt :
Background Information
• When did the event happen?
• How old were you?
• Where did event take place?
The Story
• What happened? How did it happen?
• What were your reactions/feeling at the time?
• Why is this story important to you?

The Impact (Then)
• What was the impact when it
• How did you feel?
• What were your thoughts

The Impact (Now)
• What is the impact on you now?
• How do you feel now?
• What are your thoughts?
• Looking back are you glad you
experienced this?

The Point: Why is this topic important?
•What do you want the reader to know about you from your essay?
•How would you be different if this had not happened to you?
•What lesson(s) did you learn after this experience?
•How will you continue use what you have learned in the future?


Personal Narrative Tone

The tone is probably the most overlooked element of writing a Personal Narrative. Yet the tone is what will make your story interesting, believable, and readable. You should sound like you’re having a conversation with your audience. This natural tone is what makes your story stand out based on the emotions you want to elicit in the reader. If your story is about something unexpected happening, you want to create a feeling of suspense. If you’re writing a scary story, choose words and a tone that creates some fear.

Make sure your tone matches the story. To decide which tone is appropriate, ask yourself why you’re writing this story and who your audience will be.

Think of tone as the main feeling you want to develop in your audience.

When writing, use your own voice so that you sound like ‘somebody’. Don’t worry about sounding proper and polite if that isn’t how you sound. On the other hand, trying to sound tough, edgy, and angry can just come across as annoying and overdone. Let your writing reflect who you are and how you sound.

Set the tone by describing a character’s mood or emotions without stating them outright. Read this example from the chapter ‘Becoming Tough’ in the book Under the Influence by Phil Hamman.

      There, my sisters arranged a fight that was one of those ‘my little brother is tougher than your brother’ fights. A crowd of kids brought the other young kid and me to a phone booth on the street corner and put us both inside the booth so we couldn’t run away. In my mind, I can still see all those faces pressed up against the glass of the phone booth yelling and encouraging us to keep fighting.

The writer puts you inside the phone booth where you are surrounded by a throng of strangers and no way out. You can feel the boy’s fear and know that there’s no choice but to fight back.

Getting Started With the First Sentence of Your Personal Narrative

Getting started is the hardest part for most people. Here are two simple, proven ways to write that first sentence. Once you have that written, refer to your graphic organizer or timeline to keep the flow of words going.

  1. Your first sentence can describe the setting using sensory words.

Example from the chapter ‘Mean Streets’ from Under the Influence by Phil Hamman.

The day was hot and humid, one of those days when you can smell the tar from the road as it bakes in the sun.

Write an introductory sentence using sensory words to describe your classroom as the setting for a story.



  1. As an alternative, your first sentence can tell about an important character.

         Example from the chapter ‘Matthew’ in the book Under the Influence.

        Having been arrested 42 times, charged with multiple felonies, served four different sentences in the state penitentiary, suffered five broken hands from street fights, stabbed, outran the law in high-speed chases numerous times, and a long time friend of mine since we were young, Matt is a unique individual.

Write an introductory sentence for a story by describing something important about a friend.


Writing a Good Ending for a Personal Narrative

                     A good ending for a personal narrative tells the outcome and is reflective.

Your outcome should indicate why the story was important to you or why it was interesting.

  From the chapter ‘Dark Times’ in Under the Influence by Phil Hamman.

During this dark time, I reached a point where I just didn’t care what happened, and when you deal with someone who doesn’t care, you’re dealing with trouble.

This leaves the reader thinking about why it’s important to know when you’re dealing with someone who has reached his or her limit and doesn’t care anymore.

Your outcome should also indicate whether you or others learned something from the experience. This doesn’t always happen in a personal narrative, but it’s very common.

From the chapter ‘Building Bombs and Lessons From Big Jim’:

But then Easter came and Big Jim told them not to expect any Easter eggs or candy because he had shot and killed the Easter Bunny during hunting season. With the lessons we learned from role models like Big Jim, it’s not surprising that we built bombs and got into all kinds of trouble.

In the example above, the lesson is stated outright.

From the chapter ‘Bloody Halls’:

           If you didn’t have a lock they would pee all over your books and your jacket.   Junior high was a rough time for me, but as with all things in my life, I learned to deal with it as it was nothing compared to my home life.

This example is more subtle. The reader can draw the conclusion that the narrator did learn something: how to deal with the things that went on in junior high as well as all other things in life.



Using Dialogue in a Personal Narrative

The key to dialogue is to find a happy medium. Don’t use too much dialogue or too little. Dialogue helps the reader learn about the personalities of the characters in the story.

          How do you know where to add dialogue to the story?

Use dialogue to:

* tell someone else in the story what you did.

* tell what you said.

* tell someone else in the story what another person did.

* tell what someone said.

Example from the chapter ‘Trauma’ in Under the Influence by Phil Hamman, in which there is a balance of dialogue.

    “What’s going on? Who’s bleeding?” I yelled.

     But my question was lost in the air as they continued yelling at each other. I followed the blood trail which grew in volume as I approached the bathroom.

This has more impact than writing this:

     I didn’t what was going on or who was bleeding. They continued yelling at each other. I followed the blood trail which grew in volume as I approached the bathroom.

Let your personality come through by what you say and how you say it. Don’t worry about saying the ‘right’ thing or always using correct grammar in your dialogue unless that’s the way it was really spoken.

Example from the chapter ‘Bullies and the Bus From Hell’:

The Maggot had beady eyes that were set too close together, discolored teeth, and an odd body odor. I feared him as much as anyone, but on that day the name just slipped out.

       “Oh, you think you’re tough enough to call me Maggot, huh? I’ll tell you what: I’m not getting off at my bus stop. I’m getting off at yours!” was his response.

The example above is an effective use of dialogue because only the part that was actually spoken is used. It’s a better way of showing The Maggot’s personality than to write:

 The Maggot had beady eyes that were set too close together, discolored teeth, and an odd body odor. I feared him as much as anyone, but on that day the name just slipped out. The Maggot got mad when I called him this and told me that he was going to wait and get off at my bus instead of getting off at his own bus stop.

Choosing a Topic for Your Personal Narrative

To choose a topic for your Personal Narrative, think of an event to tell about and your feelings about what happened.

If an event is interesting to you, it will usually appeal to others. Think of your audience and their interests.

The following topics are from the chapter ‘The Skull and Big Toe Incidents’ from the book Under the Influence by Phil Hamman.

Dysfunctional event –The day my friend’s dad got fired for bringing a skull home from work.

Unusual event – The day my friend’s brother got his toe cut off.

Brainstorm some stories from your life that could fit into the following categories:

Funny __________________________________________________________________

Sad _____________________________________________________________________

Exciting _________________________________________________________________

Unusual _________________________________________________________________

Scary ___________________________________________________________________

Dysfunctional ____________________________________________________________


‘Show Don’t Tell’ in a Personal Narrative

Avoid telling the reader what he or she is supposed to think or feel. Instead, let the reader experience the event with the sensory words you provide. Let the reader hear, smell, see, taste, and feel what is happening in your story.  It’s more interesting for your reader to draw conclusions about the story.

One way you can do this is by eliminating the overuse of “to be” verbs, you’ll force yourself to pull in sensory words in their place. What is a “to be” verb?

“To be or not to be, that is the question…” Hamlet

The past tense forms of ‘to be’ are some of the most irregular in the English language. Let’s just worry about avoiding the past tense forms of ‘to be’ when writing a personal narrative since your story will take place in the past. As a reminder, here’s a list:

I was                    We were

You were            They were

He/She/It was

Try an example:

I was walking down the street to my friend’s house. I saw a dog and it was trying to get loose.

What happens if you take out “I was” and ‘it was’ and replace them?

Read the following example from the chapter ‘Firearms and Dogs’ from the book Under the Influence by Phil Hamman.

      While walking down the street, I could see Shane staked on a chain. When he saw me he leaped to his feet and strained against his chain, jerking and snarling in an effort to get loose. Suddenly, the stake pulled loose from the ground, and he tore down the street after me.

Below, rewrite the sentence ‘I was walking down the street to my friend’s house,’ this time using a sound that could be heard on the way:







What is a Personal Narrative?

Graphic Organizer for a Personal Narrative

Think of an experience you’ve had that is unusual or interesting. As an alternative, think of a common experience that changed you in some way.  Tell the story from your perspective

Write your first sentence here by describing the main character from your story or the setting:______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________+.

Details in Order:
Main Event:





Sensory Words:

(Which details can you describe? Write them below along with a list of possible sensory words)


Sensory words_________________________________

2. Event

Strong ending (Reflect on why the story is important or what you learned from it.):

What is a Personal Narrative?

The purpose of a personal narrative is to write about one specific event in your life.


 Personal – about oneself

 Narrative – tell a story

It is told in the first person (use I, me, my, we, etc.) So, you are telling what happened from your point of view.  Using the word I invites the reader into the story.

Focus on only one, specific event in your life.


 We have a family reunion every year. This is too broad. Make it more specific.

The following example is from the chapter ‘Redneck Reunions’ from Under the Influence by Phil Hamman.

At one of our family reunions, my cousin Curly got lost in the junkyard when we were playing hide-and-seek.  All the kids were playing hide-and-seek, and by the time we went inside for dinner, Curly still hadn’t been found.

Here’s another example of a topic that is too broad:

 My friend is really nice.

Make the following topic more specific by telling a specific story about your friend being nice:



The story is told in chronological order, so use transition words to help the flow of the story.  Here’s a partial list:

first                                next                           then                                 later

one morning            tomorrow                     now                           the following day

after a while               earlier                      eventually                    before long

first of all                  as soon as                     finally                           after  that